Can I get my VA real estate license if I'm not a VA resident?

Yes, you are not required to be a Virginia resident in order to obtain your Virginia real estate license. However, as a Virginia real estate salesperson, you must work under a licensed Virginia real estate broker.
Also, you must take the state exam at one of the approved PSI testing centers located within the Commonwealth of Virginia. You cannot take the state exam outside of the state.
You should also get your fingerprints taken at the Virginia PSI testing center.